IEA Heat Pump Programme Annex 32 – Economical Heating and Cooling Systems for Low-Energy Houses. State-of-the-Art Report – Norway (TR A6506)
Price NOK 900,-
Norway is a member of Annex 32, “Ecomonical Heating and Cooling Systems for Low-Energy Houses” (2006-2008), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 9 participating countries are Switzerland (Operating Agent), Austria, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by Enova SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. Task 1 of the project is a state-of the art analysis of the low-energy building market and heat pump technologies applied in this type of buildings.
Heating demands for low-energy houses and passive houses in Norwegian climate are characterized as follows: The ratio of the annual heating demand for hot water heating and the total annual heating demand of the houses typically range from 40 to 85%, and the heating season for space heating and heating of ventilation air range from about 5-7 and 4-6 months per year for semi-detached houses and flats, respectively (Oslo climate). In comparison, the heating season for semi-detached houses and flats constructed in accordance with the Norwegian building codes of 1997 is 8 and 9 months, respectively.
Development companies for residential properties, co-operative building societies as well as housing manufactures are now showing great interest in low-energy houses and passive houses. According to The Norwegian State Housing Bank, almost 10.000 residences with low-energy or passive house standard are now being planned, constructed or have been completed. The projects include single-family houses, semi-detached houses, row houses, block of flats and apartment buildings. The main focus in these projects has been on the architectural design, building construction and efficient ventilation systems, and less on the heating (and cooling) systems. The heat pump market in this market segment is regarded to be promising due to relatively high energy prices, low interest rate and the diversity of the heat pump systems available.
A number of heat pump systems of current interest in Norwegian low-energy houses and passive houses have been analysed with regard to function, design, heating and cooling capacity at varying operating conditions, energy efficiency (COP, SPF) and the maximum permissible investment costs. The systems include air-to-air, air-to-water and brine-to-water heat pump systems as well as different kinds of ventilation air heat pumps for dwellings with exhaust air ventilation systems or balanced ventilation systems. The specific energy demand [kWh/m2year] for heating of a 150 m2 single-family low-energy house in Oslo with different ventilation air heat pump systems have been calculated. The most energy efficient system was a Compact Ventilation and Heating Device with Integrated Exhaust Air Heat Pump (CVHD). The total annual energy demand for heating was about 50% lower than that of a house equipped with a balanced ventilation system and electric heating systems, and about 4 times lower than that of a house with an exhaust air ventilation system and electric heating systems.